Medicare payroll tax on earned income
The Medicare payroll tax is 2.9%. It applies only to earned income, which is wages you are paid by an employer, plus tips. You’re responsible for 1.45% of the tax, and it’s deducted automatically from your paycheck. Your employer pays the other 1.45%.
High-wage earners now owe an additional 0.9% on earned income a...bove $200,000 for individuals, $250,000 for couples filing jointly, and $125,000 for spouses filing separately. So, for example, if you are an individual filer whose income is $225,000, you will pay a 1.45% Medicare tax on the first $200,000, then 2.35% (1.45% plus 0.9%) on the next $25,000. Your employer is required to withhold the extra 0.9% once your wages pass the $200,000 threshold for individuals.
Another example: If you’re married and you and your spouse each earn $150,000, your employers will withhold 1.45% for Medicare tax, because neither of you exceeds the $200,000 individual threshold. But if you file a joint tax return, your combined earned income of $300,000 is $50,000 above the married filing jointly threshold. This means you will have underpaid your Medicare tax by $450 (0.9% of $50,000) and will owe the additional amount when you file your taxes. Speak to your tax adviser about potentially being required to make estimated tax payments.
Tax on net investment income
In the past, taxpayers weren’t required to pay Medicare tax on income generated from investments such as capital gains, dividends, and taxable interest. Since 2013, however, you could owe a 3.8% Medicare tax on some of or all your net investment income.
The amount you owe is based on the lesser of your total net investment income or the amount of your MAGI that exceeds $200,000 for individuals, $250,000 for couples filing jointly, or $125,000 for spouses filing separately.
In other words, you owe the 3.8% tax on the amount by which your investment income exceeds the income thresholds, or, if your wages alone already are higher than the income thresholds, you’ll owe tax on the lesser of net investment income or MAGI that exceeds the thresholds.